Estonian language and the geo-political influence over its development

Juan Carlos Monroy Pérez, Universidad de Tallin, Estonia
David Ramiro Troitiño, Universidad Técnica de Tallin, Estonia

Juan Carlos Monroy Pérez y David Ramiro Troitiño, 2016: "El idioma estonio y la influencia geopolítica sobre su desarrollo", Onomázein 33, 189-200.
DOI: 10.7764/onomazein.33.12

The primary objective of this research is analyzing the Estonian language and the influence from the different languages of the numerous political and cultural powers dominating for centuries Estonia, influencing this small nation but without absorbing it. Language is one of the main vehicles of cultural tradition that somehow defines the concept of nation, understood as a cultural community of shared values and customs developed over centuries and independent of the concept of nation-state, developed very late in the Estonian case. Estonians have managed to maintain their collective identity through language and surprisingly reached political maturity in the twentieth century with the creation of the first Estonian state. Politics, society, culture and language are joined in the case of Estonia in an indivisible overlap has given way to one of the most dynamic companies in Europe today. The research focuses on Finn-Ugric origin, Uralic background, the Estonian language, which is not included in the Indo-European group. And in the Baltic-Finn subgroup, which includes languages such as Finnish, Estonian and a number of minority languages in the Russian Federation. This article provides a historical overview of foreign words in the Estonian vocabulary from its known origins to the early twentieth century. This research includes a number of novel findings peering distant common trunk between the Finno-Ugric languages and Indo-European, and the significant influence of the Slavic language, despite the still latent political conflict with Russia, and hence the widespread rejection of any Slavic influence because his threat to the Estonian cultural identity because of the brutal assimilation policy developed by the Soviet Union and the important Russian speaking minority currently residing in Estonia. Other research findings break the myth of the relative impermeability of the Estonian language, as evidenced by the influences of neighboring languages, such as Swedish, Finnish or Norwegian, without forgetting the historical influence of the German language in its different forms, political power in the Baltic countries for centuries. Therefore, the idea of isolation and withdrawal of the Estonian language as a determinant in maintaining national identity of Estonians element is removed through the new data from the research.